Some symptoms of kidney stones are very similar to the symptoms of a urinary tract infection or cystitis, especially in women. These have to do with urination. You might notice discolored or cloudy urine and pain, smarting, or burning during urination. A frequent or urgent need to urinate is usually a false alarm, as it may be difficult to actually urinate more than a tiny amount.
Given these warning symptoms, a doctor can diagnose kidney stones by doing a blood or urine test, conducting an ultrasound, or taking an X-ray with or without dye. Then a medical professional can eliminate the kidney stone by a variety of methods, ranging from non-invasive flushing with lots of liquid, to minor surgery under general anaesthetic.