Type 1 Diabetes
First-line treatment for individuals that are newly diagnosed with Type
2 Diabetes would be to improve their lifestyle by choosing healthier options
for their diet, increasing physical activity, and losing weight.
Insulin may be required if your blood sugar is very high and your diabetes
remains uncontrolled. Insulin is administered through injections (shot)
or can be added into your intravenous fluids during hospitalization.
Long-acting insulin (basal insulin) works to control blood sugar between
meals and when you sleep. This medication is usually taken once or twice
a day (often with your evening meal or at bedtime) which helps control
your blood sugar around the clock. If you are taking oral medication but
your provider wants to switch to insulin then more than likely this is
the first type of insulin you will be prescribed.
Rapid or fast-acting (bolus) insulin is taken near mealtime. This insulin
works quickly to control the sudden and rapid spike in blood sugar after
you eat your meal.
If you think you have hypoglycemia, check your blood glucose. If your blood
sugar reading is 70 mg/dl or below, have at least 15 grams of carbohydrates.
Examples include the following: half a cup (4 ounces) of juice or regular
soda, 3-5 hard candies, glucose tablets or glucose gel (read the instructions).
After 15 minutes, recheck your blood glucose.
This type of diabetes is chronic and develops in younger people but can
be diagnosed in young adults as well. Only about 5% of people with diabetes
have this form of the disease. With the help of insulin therapy and other
treatments, even young children can learn to manage their condition and
live a long, healthy life.
Diagnosis of diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association,
includes a fasting blood glucose higher than 126 mg/dl, a random blood
sugar of 200 mg/dl or higher with symptoms of hyperglycemia, an abnormal
2-hour glucose-tolerance test and/or a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 6.5%
CAUSES OF TYPE 1 DIABETES
The causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown but genetic and environmental
factors contribute to the disease. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system
mistakenly destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that makes insulin.
The body treats beta cells as foreign invaders and destroys them, which
can result in little to no insulin for the body. Insulin is a hormone
in the body required to move sugar into the cells for energy. Lack of
insulin in the body leads to high sugar levels in the body.
COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES
Complications occur when blood sugar in the body is uncontrolled or is
not treated over long periods of time. If left untreated, diabetes can
lead to several complications, such as amputations and nerve damage, kidney
or eye problems, heart disease, and stroke to name a few.