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Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is a chronic disease characterized by high blood sugar, possible insulin resistance and less insulin available. People living with type 2 diabetes are more at risk of various forms of both short- and long-term complications.

With type 2 diabetes, the body does not use insulin properly or does not make enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas and is required to move sugar into the cells for energy. Over time, the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to keep blood glucose at normal levels.

When glucose builds up in the blood, it causes two problems:

  • Right away, cells may be starved for sugar (energy)
  • Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt the eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart


There are many known risk factors that can lead to type 2 diabetes, some can be changed and some cannot. Below is a list of the risk factors that can lead to type 2 diabetes and the bolded risk factors cannot be changed:

  • Age ≥40 years
  • Family history of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Male
  • Non-Caucasian ancestry
  • History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Previously identified metabolic syndrome
  • PCOS, acanthosis nigricans
  • Hypertension Dyslipidemia
  • Antipsychotic therapy
  • Chronic glucocorticoid exposure

*Bold: non-modifiable

Are you at risk for type 2 diabetes?

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Early detection and treatment of diabetes can decrease the risk of developing complications. Diabetes can lead to several complications, such as nerve damage and amputation, kidney or eye problems, heart disease, and stroke. However, if managed well, individuals who have diabetes can live a long, healthy life.

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